|Cyanotype, the second oldest
photographic medium still in use, was named for the bluish-green hue,
“cyan”, and was invented in 1842 by Sir John Herschel, renowned astronomer
and chemist. Herschel (who coined the terms “positive”, “negative”,
“photograph” and “snapshot”) was a friend of Fox Talbot, credited with
inventing silver based photography in 1839 in parallel with Daguerre.
Herschel was a bit jealous of Talbot’s fame and fortune derived from
silver based patents (as he had advised Talbot on the silver process
including such things as using hypo to fix the images) so he decided to
experiment with the photosensitive properties of certain iron salts. The
resulting Cyanotype process produces “Prussian Blue” (iron prussate), an
extremely stable compound. As a matter of fact, the first photo book was
produced by Anna Atkins in 1843 (a year before Fox Talbot’s book, usually
given this credit) of botanical samples printed as Cyanotypes. It remains
in perfect condition. The Cyanotype was later used as the original
architect’s “blue print” process but was replaced by a polymer process in
|Cyanotypes, along with many of the other
19th century processes such as albumen, salt, gum, and platinum/palladium
prints, have been experiencing an enormous resurgence among fine art
photographers and are referred to in modern parlance as “alternative, or
alt, processes”. Most modern photos are made on factory manufactured
photographic papers which, though technically excellent, all look very
mass-produced. They have a smooth undercoating between the paper and the
emulsion which usually has, even in matte paper, a smooth gelatin surface.
The beauty of prints made in alternative processes is that there is no
under coating so the surface texture of the paper shows through all of the
tonal values and parts of the image. This gives the photographer working
in alt processes another creative choice, that of the aesthetic aspects of
the paper such as surface texture (hot or cold pressed), color (pure
white, cream, beige, etc.), type of fiber (cotton, linen, wood), etc.,
much like the printmaker working in media such as intaglio and serigraphy.
In the 19th century, the best photographic artists were considered
printmakers. Further, there is a subtlety of tones and a gentleness of
detail found in hand coated papers not found in the hard edge of the
factory made papers. The return to alt processes is a contemporary
manifestation of the Arts and Crafts Movement of the late 19th and early
20th centuries which was a reaction to mass-produced items resulting from
the industrial revolution.
|The proper chemistry is mixed and hand coated on the
chosen paper, sheet by sheet, by the photographer under very dim light and
allowed to dry. As these processes are only sensitive to ultra violet
radiation, they must be exposed under sunlight or using a UV source such
as a plate burner from the graphic arts industry. There is no way of
making an enlargement on these slow papers so the negative must be the
actual size of the final image, such as 5”X7”, 8” X 10” or larger.
|One must either photograph with a 5X7, 8X10, or larger
view camera, make an enlarged film negative from a smaller camera original
negative, or, using 21st century technology, scan the smaller camera
original negative and print out a graphic arts enlarged duplicate negative
on an Image Setter. The resulting negative is then sandwiched with the
coated paper, placed in a contact printing frame, and placed in the sun
for between 5 and 30 minutes, depending on the negative, the day, the
clouds, the time of year, and, some sarcastically allege, the phase of the
moon. Cyanotypes are easily processed by washing in plain water and
air-dried. This is a slow process reminding the print maker that things
happened more slowly in the 19th century!
|For me, this is more than a curious process producing
prints of incredible longevity…it is a new way of pre- and
post-visualizing. I ask myself, “What might work in cyan? What creative or
emotional effect will the color have?” Suddenly, ideas for new images as
well as some of my older images come to mind that might best be expressed
with the subtle blues and gentle tones and textures of the Cyanotype. Some
seem obvious, some not so, but it is great to experiment. In any case, I
continue to look for what light does to our medium, our spirits, and us.
This is my first foray into Cyanotype.
1) THE BOOK OF ALTERNATIVE PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSES
by Christopher James, Delmar.
2) “The World Journal of Post Factory Photography”, a periodical by Judy